The region has two extreme points at Dallol, 116 meters below sea level, and the highest peak at mount Mussa-Alle, 2063 meters above sea level.

The state is found in the rift valley. Most of the region is flat land. The altitude of the region ranges from 116 meter below sea level (where one of the highest temperature [500C] on earth has been recorded) to 1600 meters above sea level. The lowland areas of Afar are generally below 1600 meters above sea level. The highest peak, mount Mussa-Alle is just 2063 meters above sea level. The temperature of Afar varies from 25°C during the rainy season (September-March) to 48°C during the dry season (March-September). The average annual rainfall registered for 11 years at Dubti station was 187.9mm.