Little is known about the very powerful scholars of the Axumite Kingdom. With unique achievements during the ancient times, which put their kingdom alongside to one of only four powerful states, they undeservedly, are known less. The Axumites (also written as Aksumites) invented Ge’ez, a language with its own unique script writing, alphabets and numbers. This language also has its own unique calendar with 13 months in a year, 30 days each in a month, 7 days in a week and 12-hours each day and night. Timing of hours start counting 1:00 early in the morning and end 12:00 late evening. The night shift is counted in the same way.
The Ge’ez Calendar (Tigrigna: ኣቆፃፅራ ግእዝ; aqoṭsaṭsär Ge’ez) is the principal calendar used in Tigrai, Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical calendar for Christians in Tigrai, Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Orthodox Tewahedo churches, Eastern Catholic Church and Lutheran Orthodox Church. It is a sidereal calendar based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A seven- to eight-year gap between the Ge’ez and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.
Like the Coptic calendar, the Ge’ez calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six pagumen days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ge’ez months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge’ez. The sixth pagumen day is added every four years without exception on August 29 of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ge’ez year, Meskerem 1, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually September 11 (Gregorian). It, however, falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year.
New Year’s Day
The Ethiopian New Year has many names in many indigenous languages. You know Ethiopia has more than 85 proud ethnics with their own rich calture and language. Enkutatash is the name for the Ethiopian New Year, and means “gift of jewels” in the Ge’ez language. The story goes back almost 3,000 years to the Queen of Sheba, of ancient Kingdom of Axum, a woman of great wealth, beauty, and power, who was returning from a trip to visit King Solomon of Israel in Jerusalem, as mentioned in the Bible in I Kings 10 and II Chronicles 9. She had gifted Solomon with 120 talents of gold (4.5 tons) as well as a large amount of unique spices and jewels. When the Queen returned to Axum her chiefs welcomed her with enku (Ge’ez) or jewels to replenish her treasury. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for leap years, when it occurs on September 12. The Ge’ez calendar year 2007 ‘Amete Məhrät (“Year of Mercy”) began on September 11, 2014. However, the Ge’ez years 2004 and 2000 began on September 12, 2011 and 2007, respectively.
This date correspondence applies from the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ge’ez leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; thus a set of corresponding dates will most often apply for a single century. As the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead.
To indicate the year, Tigreans, Ethiopians and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25 of 9 AD (Julian), as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400; thus its first civil year began seven months earlier on August 29, 8 AD. Meanwhile, Europeans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in 525 AD instead, which placed the Annunciation eight years earlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ge’ez year number to be eight years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, then seven years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year.
In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were also widely used in the Axumite Kingdom.
Leap year cycle
The four-year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after a Ge’ez leap year is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-year and then the Mark-year. The year with the sixth epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year.
There are no exceptions to the four-year leap-year cycle, unlike the Gregorian calendar.
|Ge’ez & Tigrigna||Coptic||Julian
[Mar. 1900 to Feb. 2100]
|Gregorian Start Date
in Year after Ge’ez Leap Day
|Meskerem (መስከረም)||Tut (Thout)||August 29||September 11||September 12|
|Ṭəqəmt(i) (ጥቅምት)||Babah (Paopi)||September 28||October 11||October 12|
|Ḫədar (ሕዳር)||Hatur (Hathor)||October 28||November 10||November 11|
|Taḫśaś ( ታህሳስ)||Kiyahk (Koiak)||November 27||December 10||December 11|
|Ṭərr(i) (ጥሪ)||Tubah (Tobi)||December 27||January 9||January 10|
|Lekatit (Gz. Yekatit) (ለካቲት)||Amshir (Meshir)||January 26||February 8||February 9|
|Mägabit (መጋቢት)||Baramhat (Paremhat)||February 25||March 10||March 10|
|Miyazya (ሚያዝያ)||Baramundah (Paremoude)||March 27||April 9||April 9|
|Gənbot (ግንቦት)||Bashans (Pashons)||April 26||May 9||May 9|
|Säne (ሰነ)||Ba’unah (Paoni)||May 26||June 8||June 8|
|Ḥamle (ሐምለ)||Abib (Epip)||June 25||July 8||July 8|
|Nähase (ነሐሰ)||Misra (Mesori)||July 25||August 7||August 7|
|Ṗagʷəmen/ (ጳጐሜን)||Nasi (Pi Kogi Enavot)||August 24||September 6||September 6|
Source: Modified from WikiPedia
Note that these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap years in the Ge’ez calendar, meaning dates before 1900 and after 2100 will be off set.